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[20150304] Google Summer of Code 2015 and NetBSD
Google's "Summer of Code" is a chance for students to get paid to work on Open Source software, with the associated Open Source projects as mentoring organization. Now, the 2015 mentoring organizations have been announced, and I am in a sad position to tell that NetBSD is not among the choosen mentoring organizations this year, again. :-(

Yet, fear not! While NetBSD itself is not in the game, there are plenty of Open Source projects that are close, in the game and that offer projects related to them and NetBSD!

Here's the start of a list:

Feel free to drop me a note if you know about more. As always, interested students are welcome to contact these projects early to get in touch and talk about their ideas.

Good luck! :)

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[20131008] Google Summer of Code 2014
Yes, 2014 - Google today announced the 10th anniversary of its Summer of Code. NetBSD participation is still being sorted out, but can be expected. See the blog post and the timeline for more information.

First and foremost, use this early news to think about possible projects, get familiar with NetBSD (which you probably are if you read this), and sort out your summer occupation 2014.

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[20130528] NetBSD's projects for Google's Summer of Code 2013 have been chosen
In this year's round of Google Summer of Code, we have again received a number of project proposals by interested students. After going into details and finding out what projects have a chance to give both the NetBSD project and the student the most benefit (besides the money), this is settled now, and I'm pleased to announce that the following students and their projects are our prospects for 2013:
  • Julian Fagir: System upgrade (system_upgrade)
  • Haomai Wang: Make NetBSD a supported guest OS under VirtualBox (Virtualbox)
  • Manuel Wiesinger: Defragmentation for FFS in NetBSD (defrag_ffs)
  • Myron Aub: Port Linux's drm/kms/gem/i915 (DRM2)
  • Przemyslaw Sierocinski: Implement file system flags to scrub data blocks before deletion (fs_scrub_flags)
Of course all other students who have submitted proposals can feel free to participate in NetBSD outside of the Summer of Code. For those participating, this is the time for the timeline.

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[20130409] NetBSD is part of Google's Summer of Code 2013
News is out that NetBSD is part of Google's Summer of Code 2013 (GSoC) again. GSoC is about students doing work for Open Source projects over the summer, and getting paid while doing so. By Google. For projects proposed by both students and the Open Source projects.

Click on the above link for more information on GSoC in general, there is also a list of proposed projects for this year in NetBSD.

Next steps are:

  • April 9 - 21: Would-be student participants discuss application ideas with mentoring organizations.
  • April 22, 19:00 UTC: Student application period opens.
  • May 3, 19:00 UTC: Student application deadline.
  • Interim Period: Mentoring organizations review and rank student proposals; where necessary, mentoring organizations may request further proposal detail from the student applicant.
  • May 6: Mentoring organizations should have requested slots via their profile in Melange by this point.
  • May 8: Slot allocations published to mentoring organizations From there, students work on their projects with the help of their mentors. There's a "midterm" report due with a first part of the money paid, the rest is paid if the project is finished successfully.

    During the project, students are encouraged to publish news about their process to the world in blogs and other ways found appropriate by their mentoring organizations.

    Past NetBSD projects can be found on SourceForce.

    Interested? Act now!

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  • [20120204] Google Summer of Code 2012 will happen - first NetBSD directions
    Google announced at Fosdem that there will be Google Sommer of Code 2012, the 8th time in a row. Ot can be expected that NetBSD will strive to participate again this year, and as such, now is a good time to
    • make up your mind if you want to participate, either as student or mentor

    • hash out details of project proposals and possible implementation details, and also see how much time you can devote as possible mentor. Also, think about choosing criteria for students and how to communicate with them on a daily basis and also in cases where problems arise (reallife on either side, student going AWOL, ...)

    • go over the list of project proposals, esp. the ones with the right dimension for GSoC, and suggest changes and additions of new projects

    • make yourself familiar with NetBSD from a user/admin viewpoint and esp. from a developer point if you intend to apply as student.

      A (slightly dated?) tour through the NetBSD source tree is available for userland, libraries, and the kernel. Also of interest: a guide on NetBSD internals.

    • review our guidelines for applying for a project if you're an interested student. We get many really bad, dull and uninformed project proposals each year, and we wish more students would be as serious as YOU probably are (as you're already here :-).
    Let's look forward to NetBSD and the Goole Summer of Code 2012, and the exciting new projects to come!

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    [20100406] NetBSD and Google Summer of Code - Send in your proposals!
    Just a friendly reminder to interested students who want to participate in this year's Google Summer of Code: You have only three days left to send in your proposal! Student application deadline is April 9th, 19:00 UTC.

    See our list of suggested SoC projects if you need inspiration (other project suggestions are welcome!), and please have a look at our proposal HowTo for a bunch of questions we want to have answered so that we can properly judge your proposal. Get going!

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    [20100318] NetBSD is part of Google's Summer of Code 2010
    This year's Google Summer of Code mentoring organizations has been announced, and NetBSD is part of it, again! Possible projects are listed on the projects page, the GSoC wiki page, and esp. on the SoC-projects page.

    Prospective students that are interested in working on a project are recommended to have a look at the Project Application / Proposal HowTo!

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    [20100222] Google Summer of Code 2010 NetBSD swcryptX Project Suggestion (Updated #2)
    Please see the update below before applying for this GSoC project!

    I've been thinking of a neat-o project for this year's Google Summer of Code:

      Abstract: The goal of this project is to provide crypto acceleration by utilizing multiple CPU cores. The work is to extend the existing software-only "swcrypto" crypto driver and hook that up with NetBSD's OpenCrypto framework.

    Overview of operation

    The opencrypto(9) framework exists to coordinate hardware acceleration in NetBSD. Applications of the framework can be inside the kernel like the FAST_IPSEC IPsec implementation, or in userland like OpenSSL with the "cryptodev" engine. Crypto drivers can be realized in software or in hardware. Hardware drivers can be used to instruct e.g. the AMD Geode LX's AES block or a HIFN chip to perform cryptographic operations. Upon system startup, the crypto drivers at the opencrypto(9) framework, telling what operations they can perform. When an operation is required later, the framework will look which crypto device is currently not busy, and offload the operation to that device. Upon completion, the result is fed back to the application.

    The following image illustrates the components and their interaction.


    Offloading the cryptographic requests involves some overhead. Data needs to be transferred to the hardware and back. On systems with a slow CPU, this overhead is relatively small compared to the operation speed of the CPU. On faster CPUs, the overhead becomes more of a burden, making the benefit of the crypto hardware negligible.

    As examples, while a hifn(4) chip can provide worthwhile speedups on 500MHz and 1GHz CPUs, no performance win is experienced on a 2.4GHz CPU.


    The communication overhead involves data transfers over a PCI bus, which is of relatively low speed compared to today's modern CPUs. Preventing the data transfer is a worthwhile goal. In coordination with today's modern multi-core CPUs, using one or more CPUs solely for the purpose of crypto acceleration, a measurable improvement of crypto performance is expected. At the same time, no special hardware requirements beyond the CPU exist. This allows turning standard contemporary systems into fast crypto systems easily.

    The following image illustrates the idea of interoperation between a CPU core that runs the kernel and application codes and three cores that are dedicated to crypto code.

    Implementation Roadmap

    This is where it gets fishy. ;) The existing opencrypto(4) framework probably needs to be make MP-aware at the same time, employing proper use of NetBSD's locking framework. (Already done) The existing swcrypto(4) needs to be adjusted for operation on multiple CPUs at the same time. A way to decide how many CPUs are dedicated to run swcrypto(4) instances. CPUs that run swcrypto(4) need to be taken out from the usual NetBSD CPU scheduling so that they are available exclusively for crypto.


    In no particular order:
    • Know how to build and install a kernel
    • Understanding of fine grained SMP and locking
    • How to use NetBSD's kernel threads, code-wise
    • How to interact with NetBSD's scheduler, code-wise
    • Tell the scheduler to pin a specific kernel thread to a specific CPU
    • Interaction between applications (IPsec, OpenSSL) with opencrypto(9), code-wise
    • Interaction of crypto providers with opencrypto(9), code-wise
    • Hardware! You won't be able to do this without at least two CPU cores in your machine. The more the better.
    • Benchmarking & a test setup for it

    Project Applications

    Please follow the NetBSD Project Application/Proposal HowTo if you're serious to work on this project.

    If you have any questions let me know, public discussion should be led on the tech-crypto@ list.

    Update: There was some discussion. In particular, my understanding of the interaction of the various layers as outlined above is not 100% accurate, and userland applications using opencrypto already seem to benefit from multiple kernel threads. In-kernel applications apparently do not, and before providing multiple crypto-servers in kernel (as suggested), work should probably done first to make sure such applications exist. Examples of this are IPsec (and the whole network stack), but also others like cgd (which AFAIU currently does not use opencrypto(9)).

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    [20100221] More news from NetBSD land: inside and outside the kernel
    My inbox is still overflowing with NetBSD related news, so here is the next chunk for you:
    • People owning a Marvell PCMCIA WiFi card can how have a look at the malo(4) driver. If you use this on a gumstix ARM board, have a look as some fiddling with drvctl(8) is needed to get the card recognized properly.

    • Speaking about Gumstix, KIYOHARA Takashi has declared the porting effort as finished. Support for the baex, connex, verdex and verdex-pro modules is available, as is support for the support modules.

    • Staying in the "embedded" corner, KIYOHARA Takashi has announced that Plathome's OpenBlockS600 (AMCC 405EX) can now boot NetBSD via NFS. See the posting for dmesg output. The OpenBlockS600 comes with a AMCC 405EX PowerPC CPU, two GigE ethernet ports and a bunch of other goodies for a price of about $600US.

    • Coming from hardware to software, pkgsrc-2009Q4 was released some time ago, and of course binary packages are available for a number of platforms: 5.0/macppc, 4.0.1/sparc and 5.0.1/sparc, 4.0.1/i386, 5.0.1/i386 and the same for 4.0.1/amd64 5.0.1/amd64. Also, binaries of pkgsrc-2009Q3 are available for 5.0/shark.

    • Google's Summer of Code was a big success for NetBSD and all of the Open Source community, and it seems there will be one again this summer.

      Preparations are in an early stage, but there are already a FAQ and a timeline as well as the Program Terms of Service. From the NetBSD side, we're always happy for project suggestions (please use our mailing lists for discussions), and in NetBSD, we are currently working on out projects page. If you plan to submit a proposal for a project with NetBSD, please see our project application/proposal form If you plan to submit a proposal for a project with NetBSD, please see our Project Application/Proposal HowTo.

    • Getting back to the NetBSD code, a number of interesting changes were made in the previous weeks. The first to mention is that David Young has continued is work on the new shutdown order for device drivers: ``cgd, dk, dm, md, raid, and vnd gracefully detach from the device tree during shutdown. I believe that ccd is the only virtual disk that does not detach.'' This allows having arbitrary stack of file systems, and still have them unconfigured properly in the right order on system shutdown.

    • Another major change that went into NetBSD recently is that terminfo was imported into NetBSD-current. Terminfo replaces termcap, but provides a backward compatible termcap interface. This move follows discussion from last summer, and docs by The Open Group (the people who make things like the POSIX standard and the Single Unix Specification), which indicates that the termcap specification will be withdrawn in the future.

    • Moving from userland inside the kernel, David Holland has proceeded with work to unhook LFS from UFS. Historically, the Log structured File System was written after the Berkeley Fast File System. With the idea of sharing the core "Unix File System" code for both file systems, this resulted in a strong relationship between LFS and FFS, which was/is not always the best for the advantage and stability of either one: ``sharing ufs between both ffs and lfs has made all three entities (but particularly lfs) gross. ffs and lfs are not similar enough structurally for this sharing to really be a good design.''

    • Another major addition to the NetBSD kernel was made recently by Darren Hunt: ``Courtesy of CoyotePoint Systems, I've been working on a port of DTrace [...] to NetBSD for i386.'' Citing Wikipedia, ``DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems for troubleshooting kernel and application problems on production systems in real time. Originally developed for Solaris, it has since been released under the free Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) and has been ported to several other Unix-like systems.

      DTrace can be used to get a global overview of a running system, such as the amount of memory, CPU time, filesystem and network resources used by the active processes. It can also provide much more fine-grained information, such as a log of the arguments with which a specific function is being called, or a list of the processes accessing a specific file. ''

      The code is available in NetBSD-current. I haven't looked into this yet, but I'm looking forward of reports and blog postings if the wikipedia command line examples work.

      (I think like with ZFS, Dtrace could use a hand with documenting the NetBSD side of things. Any takers?)

    • The last kernel change to mention is related to security: mapping the address 0 from userland was disabled. This issue went through the press late last year, and it this is now addressed in NetBSD, too. Those that still beed to map address 0 can do so via the USER_VA0_DISABLED_DEFAULT kernel option or the vm.user_va0_disable sysctl.

    • So much about about the NetBSD code for now. Of course having all those fine features added screams for an immediate (*cough*) release, which brings me to the fact that NetBSD 5.0.2 has been released: `` NetBSD 5.0.2 is the second critical/security update of the NetBSD 5.0 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical for security or stability reasons.

      Please note that all fixes in critical/security updates (i.e., NetBSD 5.0.1, 5.0.2, etc.) are cumulative, so the latest update contains all such fixes since the corresponding minor release. These fixes will also appear in future minor releases (i.e., NetBSD 5.1, 5.2, etc.), together with other less-critical fixes and feature enhancements. ''

    I'm closing for today by pointing to three NetBSD-related events:
    • There's a hackathon going this weekend (Feb 20/21 2010)
    • Volunteers are wanted to setup & man a NetBSD booth at FrOSCamp 2010 Zurich, Switzerland, on Sep 17/18 2010
    • pkgsrcCon 2010 will be held in Basel, Switzerland, from May 28ths to 30ths 2010.
    Have fun meeting the gang!

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    [20100119] A colorful collection of NetBSD news from the past few weeks
    AKA "I've been slacking again, and there's a whole pile of stuff here now that I'm putthing into one blog posting". Here we go:
    • Initial support for the FriendlyArm Mini2440 board has been announced by Paul Fleischer. In a later update, most of the hardware is reported working, and the patch is available for review & comments. Furthermore, the touch screen is usable, and Qt/Embedded was built on top of wscons.

    • Force10 Networks Receives Common Criteria Security Certification for Its High-Performance Ethernet Switch/Router Products. According to the article, ``Common Criteria evaluations entail formal rigorous analysis and testing to examine security aspects of a product or system. Extensive testing activities involve a comprehensive and formally repeatable process, confirming that the security product functions as claimed by the manufacturer. Security weaknesses and potential vulnerabilities are specifically examined during wide-ranging evaluation and testing.

      FTOS is the operating system software that runs on Force10 switch/router product lines, including the E-Series, C-Series and S-Series platforms. Based on NetBSD, FTOS leverages a distributed, multiprocessor architecture that delivers highly scalable protocols and reliability. By delivering the same OS across its entire switch/router line, Force10 ensures that customers benefit from stable code, a consistent configuration environment and simpler software management. ''

    • While there: Force10 Networks Delivers Ethernet-Optimized Platform for MPLS Core Networks: ``Force10 Networks, Inc. [...] announced the immediate availability of MPLS (multi-protocol label switching) functionality for its ExaScale E-Series core switch/routers. [...] The ExaScale platform combines high-density, non-blocking, line-rate 10 GbE switching and routing with robust MPLS LSR support at 1/5th of the cost of a traditional core router, enabling carriers to fully capitalize on the economic advantages of Ethernet.''

    • Create Bootable Live Linux USB Drives with UNetbootin: ``UNetbootin allows you to create bootable Live USB drives for a variety of Linux distributions from Windows or Linux, without requiring you to burn a CD. You can either let it download one of the many distributions supported out-of-the-box for you, or supply your own Linux .iso file if you've already downloaded one or your preferred distribution isn't on the list.''

      And of course we all know that NetBSD is Linux, right? See the list of supported distributions:

      The homepage mentions that NetBSD 4.0 is supported, maybe someone wants to give them an update on what's up with NetBSD 5.0? Would be nice to see that on the list!

    • Ever wondered what happened with the BSD Certification recently? There's a video from the talk BSD Certification Group: A Case Study in Open Source Certification available that talks about the goal of the project, the two exams (BSD Associate, BSD Professional), and what's going on behind the scenes.

    • With the move from XFree to, the X server for the DNARD Shark's NetBSD/shark lost support for accelerated X. Thanks to Michael 'macallan' Lorenz, hardware-accelerated X for NetBSD/shark is back now: ``I finally got around to start working on an Xorg driver for the IGS CyberPro 20x0 family found in rev. 5 Sharks, Netwinder etc. - currently the driver is built only on shark and supports only the VL variant found there. Adding support for PCI chips is trivial though, just needs extra probing. The driver supports autoconfiguration ( X -configure should yield something almost usable, only DefaultDepth needs to be adjusted).''

    • Staying with cool platforms, here's a quick procedure to run NetBSD/sun2 5.0.1 on The Machine Emulator (TME) (see pkgsrc/emulators/tme), compiled by Izumi Tsutsui. Who's first do get a pkgsrc bulk build done? :-)

    • Jed Davis has committed the RAIDframe parity Summer-of-Code project. See his posting for the details. The project ``drastically reduces the time RAIDframe spends rewriting parity after an unclean shutdown by keeping better track of outstanding writes (thus, "parity map"). The tech-kern archives have more details [...]

      This feature is enabled by default on all sets (other than RAID 0). It can be administratively disabled with the new "raidctl -M" flag, which is described in the changes to the raidctl(8) man page; however, the I/O overhead for updating the parity map is expected to be unnoticeable in practice.''

    So much for now. There is more in the pipe, but that will have to wait for now. Good night!

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    Disclaimer: All opinion expressed here is purely my own. No responsibility is taken for anything.

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