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[20070816] Network auto-detection scripts
Some time ago I had to redo the network auto-detection scripts on my laptop when the harddisk crashed and I had no backup. Here's an attempt at documenting things.

The picture: My laptop has an ethernet and a wireless card, tlp0 and ath0. Ethernet can be plugged in at times, and should have precedence over wireless -- this is mostly to prevent a wifi network bouncing up and down interrupting operating via the cable. Wireless can be configured in several ways, including no security, WEP or WPA.

The machine should try to find network when waking up from APM, when ethernet is plugged in, or when a wireless network is found (using whatever SSID).

The idea is to use wpa_supplicant(8) to detect wifi networks and mark the ath0 interface as "connected". NetBSD's ifwatchd(8) is used to detect if either ethernet or wifi is "connected" or disconnected when the machine's either running, or returning from sleep. A shell script then runs dhcp and does assorted setup and cleanup.

The main engine in this setup is ifwatchd(8), which basically handles all the work that's either induced by kicking wpa_supplicant(8) via APM, wpa_supplicant(8) finding a working wifi network, or by plugging in/out an ethernet cable.

The configuration:

  1. /etc/rc.conf:
    apmd=yes
    wpa_supplicant=yes
    wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -iath0 -c/root/wpa.conf"
    ifwatchd=yes
    ifwatchd_flags="-c /root/ifwatch-up -n /root/ifwatch-down tlp0 ath0" 

  2. WPA supplicant config: /root/wpa.conf

    Here's a sample config file for wpa_supplicant(8) that I use for University, home and another place. Note that the WPA in there is a bit more complex than in a home-setup with just a pre-shared key (PSK):

    % cat /root/wpa.conf
    ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
    ctrl_interface_group=wheel
    
    #
    # WPA-enabled network with identities 
    # (used at uni-regensburg.de and fh-regensburg.de)
    #
    network={
            ssid="802.11i"
            key_mgmt=WPA-EAP
            eap=TTLS
            identity="abc12345"
            password="foobar"
            phase2="auth=PAP"
    }
    
    #
    # An unencrypted (open) network:
    #
    network={
            ssid="eyeswideshut"
            scan_ssid=1
            key_mgmt=NONE
    }
    
    #
    # A WEP-encrypted network with pre-shared key:
    #
    network={
           ssid="wepssid"
           scan_ssid=1
           key_mgmt=NONE
           wep_key0="wepkey"
           #wep_tx_keyidx=0
           #priority=5
    } 

  3. Watching interfaces: /root/ifwatch-updown

    ifwatchd(8) can't pass parameters, so I'm using two different scripts, and then look at $0 to see if we're going up or down:

    % ls -la /root/ifwatch-*
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel   14 Mar 10 12:27 /root/ifwatch-down -> ifwatch-updown
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel   14 Mar 10 12:27 /root/ifwatch-up -> ifwatch-updown
    -rwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  760 Aug 16 11:45 /root/ifwatch-updown
    
    Here is the script that handles ethernet and wifi networks going up and down:

    % cat /root/ifwatch-updown
    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # See if network is going up or down, to be called via ifwatchd(8)
    #
    # Copyright (c) 2007 Hubert Feyrer <hubert@feyrer.de>
    # All rights reserved.
    #
    
    case $0 in
    *-up)
            case $1 in
            tlp*)
                    # Disable wireless bouncing up and down if we're on wire
                    #
                    logger stopping wpa_supplicant
                    sh /etc/rc.d/wpa_supplicant stop
                    ;;
            esac
    
            pkill dhclient
            sh /etc/rc.d/network restart
            dhclient $1
            sh /etc/rc.d/ntpd restart
            ;;
    
    *-down)
            case $1 in
            tlp*)
                    # Re-enable wireless if we go off-wire
                    #
                    logger starting wpa_supplicant
                    sh /etc/rc.d/wpa_supplicant start
                    ;;
            esac
    
            pkill -x ssh
            sh /etc/rc.d/ntpd stop
    
            pkill dhclient
    
            sh /etc/rc.d/network stop
            route delete 194.95.108.0/24
            ;;
    
    *)
            logger "$0 $@": unknown 
            ;;
    esac
    
    logger "$0 $@" done.
    echo ^G >/dev/console
    

    A few comments:

    • As the comment says, if the ethernet interface (tlp) is found to be connected, wpa_supplicant(8) is stopped to prevent it from bouncing up and down and possibly disrupt things.
    • I stop the network at every time, to flush routes and everything. This mostly works, but not completely, thus I remove one route manually. Someone please fix "route flush"...
    • I use NTP, and to prevent ntpd(8) from spamming the logs when offline, I disable it when offline.
    • When network goes away, I kill my ssh sessions. I prefer this over dead sessions that I have to kill with ~.
    • The echo-command in the last line sends a beep with ^G to give a signal that network's up/down now.

  4. APM setup:

    During my experiments, wpa_supplicant(8) died during suspend/resume, I thus stop it before suspending, and start after resuming. This may also have positive effects on power consumption (if not it should probably be hooked in here). My machine uses APM, and I mostly use /usr/share/examples/apm/script, see that file for install instructions.

    Here's the diff that I use to handle wpa_supplicant - dhclient is restarted via ifwatchd:

    % diff -u /usr/share/examples/apm/script /etc/apm/battery
    --- /usr/share/examples/apm/script      2003-03-11 15:56:54.000000000 +0100
    +++ /etc/apm/battery    2007-03-10 12:57:21.000000000 +0100
    @@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
     S=/usr/X11R6/share/kde/sounds
     
     # What my network card's recognized as:
    -if=ne0
    +if=ath0
     
     LOGGER='logger -t apm'
     
    @@ -43,8 +43,11 @@
            # In case some NFS mounts still exist - we don't want them to hang:
            umount -a    -t nfs
            umount -a -f -t nfs
    -       ifconfig $if down
    -       sh /etc/rc.d/dhclient stop
    +
    +       sh /etc/rc.d/wpa_supplicant stop
    +
    +       cd /usr/tmp ; make off
    +
            $LOGGER 'Suspending done.'
            ;;
     
    @@ -62,7 +65,9 @@
     *resume)
            $LOGGER 'Resuming...'
            noise $S/KDE_Startup.wav
    -       sh /etc/rc.d/dhclient start
    +
    +       sh /etc/rc.d/wpa_supplicant start
    +
            # mount /home
            # mount /data
            $LOGGER 'Resuming done.'
    

    The "make off" when shutting down the machine unmounts the cgf-encrypted data partition that I'm using for SSH and PGP keys. I manually mount it when I need it again.

With these four steps -- rc.conf, wpa.conf, ifwatch-script, and APM script -- things should be in place to auto-detect cable and wifi networks, and get things online.

The future -- more work on this would include adding ACPI/powerd(8) scripts, and putting all of this either into the default NetBSD install, or at least into NetBSD's /usr/share/examples.

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[20070715] Catchup: bootprops, pkgsrc logo and security, Chaos Singularity, ... (Updated)
OK, so I was lazy (busy :) again the past few weeks. Here's another big catch-up of the miracles that happened in NetBSD and pkgsrc land:

Enjoy!

Update: Thomas Bieg has made a webpage that documents the progress of his logo suggestion.

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[20070214] Force10 Networks uses NetBSD to build Software Scalability into FTOS Operating System (Update #4)
OK, citing from the news item I've managed to get up on our webserver, despite some hassles:

``Force10 Networks has leveraged NetBSD as the foundation for the Force10 Operating System (FTOS). Based on the open source UNIX-like system, FTOS provides the software scalability and resiliency that powers the Force10 TeraScale E-Series family of switch/routers. See our full press release for more details.

Some technical details that did not make it into the press release: Today, many of the worlds largest Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks depend on Force10 Networks. The Force10 TeraScale E-Series switches/routers support this by providing features like massive scalability, 1260 Gigabit Ethernet ports or 224 Ten Gigabit Ethernet ports per chassis. The machines are battle tested and provide full function L2 switching and L3 routing.

Internally, they are equipped with PowerPC CPUs, and for communication, dedicated 100M Ethernet networks are used in each system that connect the Route Processor Module (RPM) and line cards that are for system control. There are three active CPUs on the primary RPM, and a CPU on each line card that are all active in the control plane.

While data itself is forwarded by the hardware, management overhead exists if you consider running 1.500 VRRP groups, 600 OSPF neighbors, BFD on thousands of ports, ARPs on thousands of ports, collecting statistics on thousands of ports etc. All this work is done by the Force10 Operating System, FTOS''.


Force10 Networks
TeraScale E-Series Products
The release of this was coordinated for today with Force10 Networks, and I'm told that the same press release will occur on several news sites. I'll put some URLs here when I know them. :)

Update: The news item is now on the Force10 Networks frontpage, and also available as press release from their site in HTML and in PDF. It's also available on BusinessWire.

Update #2: There's another text that seems to be written down from the announcement with some Linux-babble put in at Linuxworld Update #3: The Linuxworld text was now published on NetworkWorld. Same author, same Linux-babble. Update #4: OSNEWS has an item on it too, including user comments.

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[20070116] More fighting ssh password guessing attempts (Updated)
About one year ago (coincidence?) there was some discussion about how to protect your server against ssh password guessing, see elsewhere in my blog. Apparently the topic came up again, for ssh and other services this time, and quite a number of people chimed in and mentioned their preferred solutions to the same old problem. Solutions fall into three categories: administrative settings, logfile-parsing, and PAM-based solutions.

Administrative policies to using password-less ssh logins only is something that needs some adjusting from users.

Most of the mentioned programs parse logfiles and then act on them. Among them are fail2ban, denyhost and a similar script, OSsec, blockhosts and a shell-based approach by Rhialto.

The latter post also mentions going the PAM way, which hooks right into the authentication framework and can detect repeated authentication failures best - at the place where they get detected first. This is implemented by the anti-bruteforce PAM module in pkgsrc/security/pam-af.

I guess that's some food for thoughts, and a lot of programs to do the job. Let's see what comes up in Jan 2008 for this topic... :-)

Update: Elad Efrat wrote me to tell that server site log parsing may not be such a good idea as it has a potential to open up for some nasty attacks, see this thread on the fulldisclosuer list. You've been warned!

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[20061124] TCPv6 Transmit Segment Offload (TSO) support in hardware
Work performed by TCP/IP networking stacks include many tasks, among them are calculation of packet checksums and splitting of "big" packets that exceed the hardware's maximum transport unit (MTU) into smaller, MTU-sized packets. The latter process is called fragmentation, and re-assembly of the fragmented packet on the receiving side has to be done as well, before the original 'big' packet can be processed.

Modern network cards can do a lot of things in hardware today, and -- depending on the card! -- some do support calculating checksums for IP, TCP and UDP for both IPv4 and IPv6, and some even support packet fragmentation. The latter is known as TCP segmentation offloading (TSO), as it reduces the load on the hosts's CPU by moving the job to the network card.

NetBSD supports calculating of various checksums in hardware for quite some time now (see the {ip,tcp,udp}{4,6}sum options in ifconfig(8)), and support for TSO is available for TCP/IPv4 for some time, too, see the 'tso4' option of ifconfig(8). In the past weeks, Matthias Scheler and Yamamoto Takashi have worked on adding support for TCP/IPv6 TSO and the wm(4) driver, and the code is now available in NetBSD-current, it can be enabled via the 'tso6' option of ifconfig(8).

According to measurements by Matthias, load on the host CPU was reduced from ~16% to ~12%, while throughput went up at the same time from ~710MBit/s to ~806MBit/s. For comparison: TSO for IPv4 bumps the throughput from ~624MBit/s to ~713MBit/s.

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[20061101] EtherIP driver
Hans 'woodstock' Rosenfeld has reworked the current EtherIP driver for NetBSD 4.0 based on tap(4) and gif(4), citing from the manpage: ``The etherip interface is a tunneling pseudo device for ethernet frames. It can tunnel ethernet traffic over IPv4 and IPv6 using the EtherIP protocol specified in RFC 3378.

The only difference between an etherip interface and a real ethernet interface is that there is an IP tunnel instead of a wire. Therefore, to use etherip the administrator must first create the interface and then configure protocol and addresses used for the outer header. This can be done by using ifconfig(8) create and tunnel subcommands, or SIOCIFCREATE and SIOCSLIFPHYADDR ioctls.''

See Hans' posting to tech-net for more details and a link to the code.

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[20060829] Catching up
There were a number of interesting items in the past week or so that I didn't manage to put here so far. Instead of putting them into seperate entries, I'll take the liberty to assemble them into one entry here:

  • The Newsforge article "Which distro should I choose?" refers us to a Comparison between NetBSD and OpenBSD, the website apparently allows other comparisons.

  • Parallels is a ``powerful, easy to use, cost effective desktop virtualization solution that empowers PC users with the ability to create completely networked, fully portable, entirely independent virtual machines on a single physical machine.'' In other words "something like VMware". In contrast to the leading(?) product in that area, Parallels supports NetBSD as guest OS officially.

  • PC-98 is a PC-like computer from NEC that has a Intel CPU and that was only sold in Japan. Due to some subtle differences from the "original" (IBMesque) PC architecture, it can't run NetBSD/i386 and was so far supported e.g. by FreeBSD/PC98. Now, Kiyohara Takashi has made patches and a floppy image available for a NetBSD/pc98 port - see Kiyohara's mail to tech-kern for more details, and also some discussion about further abstraction of the current x86 architecture to support machines with Intel CPUs that can't run NetBSD/i386.

  • Staying on the technical side, David Young has a need to tunnel packets through consumer-grade (and consumer-intelligence) devices, which are unlikely to cope with anything outside of the IP protocol. As such, he has posted patches to tunnel gre(4) over UDP.

    Now let's hope this works as a foundation for Teredo (tunneling IPv6 over UDP)... :-)

  • Verified Exec is a security subsystem inside NetBSD that verified fingerprints of binaries before loading them. This prevents binaries from being changed unnoticed, e.g. by trojan horses. Now when NetBSD runs such a system and memory becomes tight, only the process' data is paged to disk, the executables text is simply discarded with the assumption that it can be paged in from the disk again when needed. Of course this assumes that the binary won't change, which may not be true in a networked scenario with NFS or a disk on a fiber channel SAN that may be beyond control of the local system administrator. To prevent attacks of this kind, Brett Lymn has worked to generate per-page fingerprints that are kept in memory even when the executable pages are freed, for later verification when they are paged in from storage again.

    The code is currently under review and available as a patch set - see Brett's mail to tech-kern for all the details!

  • While talking about security subsystems, Elad Efrat, who also worked on veriexec previously continued his work to factor out authentication inside the kernel: After introducing the kauth(9) framework and replacing all manual checks for "am I running as root" or "does the current secure level allow this operating" with calls to it, the next step is to seperate the the place where those calls are made from a back-end implementation that will determine what is allowed and what is not, who is privileged and what is not, etc. While these questions are traditionally answered via special user ids (0, root), group membership or secure levels, other methods like capability databases could be imagined.

    Elad has been working along these lines, and he has posted the next step in his work, outlining the upcoming security model abstraction - see Elad's mail to tech-security for details & code references.

  • NetBSD 3.1 is around the corner, which will be an update to NetBSD 3.0 with lots of bugfixes and some minor feature enhancements like new drivers and also support for Xen 3 DomainU. There's a NetBSD 3.1 Release Candidate 1 available - be sure to have a look!

  • FWIW, I've also updated the overview of NetBSD release branches a few days ago, as I still see a lot of people that are confused over NetBSD's three lines of release branches (well, counting the development branch NetBSD-current as release branch :), and the differences between what a branch and what a release is. With NetBSD 3.0, 3.0.1 and 3.1 this sure makes my little head spin...

  • But there's more than NetBSD 3.x! If you've watched the above link, you will understand that the next release after the NetBSD 3.x set of releases is NetBSD 4.x. The release cycle for NetBSD 4.0 has started a few days ago, and there's also an announcement about the start of the NetBSD 4.0 release process by the NetBSD 4.0 release engineer Jef Rizzo which has information on schedule, how YOU can help and getting beta binaries and sources.

  • The working period of the Google Summer of Code is over, and while mentors are still evaluating the code submitted by students, there are some public status reports: Alwe MainD'argent about the status of the 'ipsec6' project and Sumantra Kundu about the 'congest' project

  • Sysjail 1.0 has been released! Includes some interesting overhead benchmarks.

  • As reported in the #NetBSD Community Blog, an alpha version of sBSD was released: It's a NetBSD-based system for easy installation on USB sticks and CF cards.

So much for now. Enjoy!

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[20060509] Using WPA
Someone asked about how to use WPA, and before searching the docs and mailing lists again, this link may come in handy next time.

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[20060131] NetBSD thanks WIDE and KAME for IPv6 implementation
As a reaction of KAME's conclusion, official mail to thank WIDE and KAME for the fine IPv6 implementation were sent out to them, see the copy sent to tech-net@. I can't say I wasn't involved in this mail... :-)

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[20060131] Article: Special Report on the Conclusion of KAME
ipv6style.jp, an IPv6 portal site, has just released some articles regarding the conclusion of the KAME project, including an interview with Professor Jun Murai, history of the KAME project and comments from KAME "core" members.

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'nuff. Grab the RSS-feed, index, or go back to my regular NetBSD page

Disclaimer: All opinion expressed here is purely my own. No responsibility is taken for anything.

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