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[20130321] Ansible, EC2 and NetBSD milestone 3 reached: Web and database in the cloud
With the previous work on setting up a local VM as database and web server and setting up a Xen VM in Amazon's EC2 cloud combined, it is pretty straight forward to setup a EC2 instance that has all the software to serve a simple web application from the cloud.

The single steps are:

  1. Prepare the environment with proper time, SSH agent and EC2 firewall groups
  2. Setup EC2 instance with pkgin and ansible
  3. Do basic preparations to meet our standards for logins, shells and general usability and security
  4. Setup database server with DB software, user and import of data
  5. Setup web server with all the software and some demo application
The following details show all the commands can and their output in more detail:

  1. Make sure time is set properly - needed when talking to Amazon EC2:
    % sudo sh /etc/rc.d/ntpd stop
    ntpd not running? (check /var/run/ntpd.pid).
    % sudo sh /etc/rc.d/ntpdate restart
    Setting date via ntp.
    % sudo sh /etc/rc.d/ntpd start
    Starting ntpd.
    % date
    Sat Mar 16 16:46:19 CET 2013
    
  2. Teach our EC2 SSH key to SSH agent, so we don't have to type a password (which we don't know anyways - EC2 only works with SSH keys):
    % ssh-add -l
    Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.
    % 
    % eval `ssh-agent`
    Agent pid 10467
    % ssh-add -l
    The agent has no identities.
    % ssh-add ../../euca2ools/key-eucaHF.pem
    Identity added: ../../euca2ools/key-eucaHF.pem (../../euca2ools/key-eucaHF.pem)
    % ssh-add -l
    2048 d5:25:19:3d:59:40:35:32:03:f7:c5:83:de:19:b6:d0 ../../euca2ools/key-eucaHF.pem (RSA)
    
  3. Check security (firewall) groups - those are stored in EC2, and we have previously set them up:
    % euca-describe-groups
    ...
    GROUP   sg-a854b3c3     749335780469    ec2-webservers  Web servers
    PERMISSION      749335780469    ec2-webservers  ALLOWS  tcp     22      22      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
    PERMISSION      749335780469    ec2-webservers  ALLOWS  tcp     80      80      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
    PERMISSION      749335780469    ec2-webservers  ALLOWS  icmp    -1      -1      FROM    CIDR    0.0.0.0/0
    
  4. See if there are any EC2 instances running:
    % euca-describe-instances
    %
    
    No - that's fine, we are about to change that!

  5. Run first playbook to launch EC2 instance and prepare it for using with ansible:
    % ansible-playbook -i hosts-HF config-ec2-prepare1vm.yml
    
    PLAY [localhost] ********************* 
    
    TASK: [Launch new EC2 instance] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Give the system 30 seconds to boot up] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Get rid of SSH "Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?" query] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Fix /usr/bootstrap.sh to run pkgin with -y] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1] => (item={'cmd': 'install /usr/bootstrap.sh /usr/bootstrap.sh.orig'})
    changed: [127.0.0.1] => (item={'cmd': 'chmod +w /usr/bootstrap.sh'})
    changed: [127.0.0.1] => (item={'cmd': 'sed "s,bin/pkgin update,bin/pkgin -y update," /usr/bootstrap.sh'})
    changed: [127.0.0.1] => (item={'cmd': 'chmod -w /usr/bootstrap.sh'})
    
    TASK: [Install pkgin via /usr/bootstrap.sh] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1] => (item={'cmd': u'env PATH=/usr/sbin:${PATH} /usr/bootstrap.sh binpkg'})
    
    TASK: [Copy over Ansible binary package] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Install Ansible dependencies] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Install Ansible package (manually)] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    TASK: [Setup lame /usr/bin/python symlink] ********************* 
    changed: [127.0.0.1]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************* 
    127.0.0.1                      : ok=9    changed=9    unreachable=0    failed=0    
    
    We now have a EC2 instance running that has Ansible installed:
    % euca-describe-instances
    RESERVATION     r-d77272ad      749335780469    ec2-webservers
    INSTANCE        i-9fafc2f2      ami-5d0f8034    ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com ...
    
  6. With this EC2 instance, we can do some basic preparations for our standards, e.g. a login without requiring root (and while there, actually disable allowing as root), setup sudo and a proper shell:
    % env ANSIBLE_HOSTS=./ec2.py ansible-playbook config-ec2-basic.yml
    
    PLAY [security_group_ec2-webservers] ********************* 
    
    TASK: [ping] ********************* 
    ok: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install tcsh] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Add user feyrer] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Create ~feyrer/.ssh directory] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable ssh login with ssh-key] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install sudo] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable PW-less sudo-access for everyone in group 'wheel'] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Disable ssh logins as root] ********************* 
    ok: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************* 
    ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com : ok=8    changed=6    unreachable=0    failed=0    
    
    Let's have a look if things actually work:
    % ssh 107.22.69.112 id
    uid=1000(feyrer) gid=100(users) groups=100(users),0(wheel)
    % ssh ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com id
    uid=1000(feyrer) gid=100(users) groups=100(users),0(wheel)
    % ssh ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com sudo id
    uid=0(root) gid=0(wheel) groups=0(wheel),2(kmem),3(sys),4(tty),5(operator),20(staff),31(guest)
    
  7. Next, install database software and import our demo database, just as we did in out local VM:
    % env ANSIBLE_HOSTS=./ec2.py ansible-playbook config-ec2-dbserver.yml
    
    PLAY [security_group_ec2-webservers] ********************* 
    
    TASK: [Install mysql] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install MySQL rc.d script] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Start MySQL service] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install python-mysqldb (for mysql_user module)] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Setup DB] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Add db-user] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Copy over DB template] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Import DB data] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************* 
    ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com : ok=8    changed=8    unreachable=0    failed=0    
    
    Again, let's see if everything works as expected:
    % ssh ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com
    ...
    ip-10-202-65-196: {1} mysql -u webapp -p webapp
    Enter password: ******
    ...
    mysql> show tables;
    +------------------+
    | Tables_in_webapp |
    +------------------+
    | names            |
    +------------------+
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> select * from names;
    +----+--------+------+
    | id | first  | last |
    +----+--------+------+
    |  1 | Donald | Duck |
    |  2 | Daisy  | Duck |
    +----+--------+------+
    2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> exit
    Bye
    ip-10-202-65-196: {2} exit
    logout
    Connection to ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com closed.
    
  8. Last, add Apache+PHP and our small demo web-application:
      
    % env ANSIBLE_HOSTS=./ec2.py ansible-playbook config-ec2-webserver.yml
    
    PLAY [security_group_ec2-webservers] ********************* 
    
    TASK: [Installing ap24-php53 package and dependencies] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install Apache rc.d script] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable and start Apache service] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable PHP in Apache config file] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': 'LoadModule.*mod_php5.so', 'l': 'LoadModule php5_module lib/httpd/mod_php5.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': 'AddHandler.*x-httpd-php', 'l': 'AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php'})
    
    TASK: [Make Apache read index.php] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Add simple PHP test - see http://10.0.0.181/phptest.php] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Install phpmyadmin] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable phpmyadmin in Apache config] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Fix Apache access control for phpmyadmin] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Enable PHP modules in PHP config file] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*zlib.so', 'l': 'extension=zlib.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*zip.so', 'l': 'extension=zip.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mysqli.so', 'l': 'extension=mysqli.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mysql.so', 'l': 'extension=mysql.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mcrypt.so', 'l': 'extension=mcrypt.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mbstring.so', 'l': 'extension=mbstring.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*json.so', 'l': 'extension=json.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*gd.so', 'l': 'extension=gd.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*gettext.so', 'l': 'extension=gettext.so'})
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com] => (item={'re': '^extension.*bz2.so', 'l': 'extension=bz2.so'})
    
    TASK: [Create directory for webapp] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Deploy example webapp] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    TASK: [Create webapp symlink for easy access] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    NOTIFIED: [restart apache] ********************* 
    changed: [ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************* 
    ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com : ok=14   changed=14   unreachable=0    failed=0    
    
  9. Test!
    % links -dump http://ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com/
                                       It works!
    
    % links -dump http://ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com/phptest.php
       PHP Logo                                                                   
                                                                                  
                                   PHP Version 5.3.17                             
    
       System          NetBSD ip-10-202-65-196.ec2.internal 6.0.1 NetBSD 6.0.1    
                       (XEN3PAE_DOMU) i386                                        
       Build Date      Dec 14 2012 10:31:13                                       
    ...
    
    % links -dump http://ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com/webapp/
       Showing table hf.names:
    
       +--------------------+
       | id | first  | last |
       |----+--------+------|
       | 1  | Donald | Duck |
       |----+--------+------|
       | 2  | Daisy  | Duck |
       +--------------------+
    
         ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
       Enter new values:
    
       first:     _____________________ 
       last:      _____________________ 
       [ Submit ] 
    
  10. At this point, everything is setup and can be enjoyed. If the instance is needed no longer, it can be terminated:
    % euca-describe-instances
    RESERVATION     r-d77272ad      749335780469    ec2-webservers
    INSTANCE        i-9fafc2f2      ami-5d0f8034    ec2-107-22-69-112.compute-1.amazonaws.com       ...
    % euca-terminate-instances i-9fafc2f2
    INSTANCE        i-9fafc2f2
    % euca-describe-instances
    RESERVATION     r-d77272ad      749335780469    ec2-webservers
    INSTANCE        i-9fafc2f2      ami-5d0f8034                    terminated      eucaHF  ...
    
What's next on my journey is to put database and webserver into separate VMs. First one of each, and then see if I find the nerve to look into a setup with more redundancy.

Shameless plug: I'll talk about the ansible and euca2ools packages at pkgsrcCon 2013 in Berlin. Join in if you're curious about what the actual playbooks used in the above examples look like!

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[20130228] Ansible and NetBSD milestone 1 reached: playbooks for system config, web+db servers
In my quest to play with Ansible, I've reached my first milestone: I now have playbooks that take a basic NetBSD installation, configure it into a usable base installation, and then add a MySQL database, Apache and PHP to use it as webserver, and then deploy a simple web application.

The playbooks are too emberassing to publish, but here are the steps to get things going:

  1. Setup NetBSD 6.0 with "base" and "etc" set, also add "pkgin" from menu
  2. Allow root logins via ssh (for a start, will be changed later)
  3. Install ansible-1.0nb1 binary package with all its depends
  4. From a management station, run: ansible-playbook -k -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-basic.yml
  5. Then, run: ansible-playbook -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-dbserver.yml
  6. Last, run: ansible-playbook -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-webserver.yml
After that, a simple "phptest()" page, phpmyadmin and my simple PHP-based web application can be run. Administration of the system is via SSH and sudo, root logins were disabled in the first ansible playbook.

Now to tweak the ansible playbooks to look less ugly, use variables, and then separate database and webserver into two separate machines - all in preparation to move them into the Amazon EC2 cloud. Stay tuned!

For the record, here's a log of the three ansible playbooks above, starting from my basic NetBSD installation that already has pkgin and ansible:

% ansible-playbook -k -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-basic.yml
SSH password: 

PLAY [netbsd] ********************* 

GATHERING FACTS ********************* 
ok: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install tcsh] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Add user feyrer] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Create ~feyrer/.ssh directory] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable ssh login with ssh-key] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install sudo] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable PW-less sudo-access for everyone in group 'wheel'] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Disable ssh logins as root] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

NOTIFIED: [restart sshd] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

PLAY RECAP ********************* 
10.0.0.181                     : ok=9    changed=8    unreachable=0    failed=0    


% ansible-playbook    -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-dbserver.yml

PLAY [dbservers] ********************* 

GATHERING FACTS ********************* 
ok: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install mysql] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install MySQL rc.d script] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Start MySQL service] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install python-mysqldb (for mysql_user module)] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Setup DB] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Add db-user] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Copy over DB template] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Import DB data] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

PLAY RECAP ********************* 
10.0.0.181                     : ok=9    changed=8    unreachable=0    failed=0    


%% ansible-playbook    -i hosts-HF config-netbsd-webserver.yml

PLAY [webservers] ********************* 

GATHERING FACTS ********************* 
ok: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Installing ap24-php53 package and dependencies] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install Apache rc.d script] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable and start Apache service] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable PHP in Apache config file] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': 'LoadModule.*mod_php5.so', 'l': 'LoadModule php5_module lib/httpd/mod_php5.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': 'AddHandler.*x-httpd-php', 'l': 'AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php'})

TASK: [Make Apache read index.php] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Add simple PHP test - see http://10.0.0.181/phptest.php] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Install phpmyadmin] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable phpmyadmin in Apache config] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Enable PHP modules in PHP config file] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*zlib.so', 'l': 'extension=zlib.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*zip.so', 'l': 'extension=zip.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mysqli.so', 'l': 'extension=mysqli.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mysql.so', 'l': 'extension=mysql.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mcrypt.so', 'l': 'extension=mcrypt.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*mbstring.so', 'l': 'extension=mbstring.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*json.so', 'l': 'extension=json.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*gd.so', 'l': 'extension=gd.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*gettext.so', 'l': 'extension=gettext.so'})
changed: [10.0.0.181] => (item={'re': '^extension.*bz2.so', 'l': 'extension=bz2.so'})

TASK: [Fix Apache access control] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Create directory for webapp] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Deploy example webapp] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

TASK: [Create webapp symlink for easy access] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

NOTIFIED: [restart apache] ********************* 
changed: [10.0.0.181]

PLAY RECAP ********************* 
10.0.0.181                     : ok=15   changed=14   unreachable=0    failed=0    


% links -dump http://10.0.0.181/webapp/
   Showing table hf.names:

   +--------------------+
   | id | first  | last |
   |----+--------+------|
   | 1  | Donald | Duck |
   |----+--------+------|
   | 2  | Daisy  | Duck |
   +--------------------+

     ----------------------------------------------------------------------

   Enter new values:

   first:     _____________________ 
   last:      _____________________ 
   [ Submit ] 

% 


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willcom, wimax, window, windows, winmodem, wireless, wizd, wlan, wordle, wpa, wscons, wstablet, X, x.org, x11, x2apic, xbox, xcast, xen, Xen, xfree, xfs, xgalaxy, xilinx, xkcd, xlockmore, xmms, xmp, xorg, xscale, youos, youtube, zaurus, zdump, zfs, zlib

'nuff. Grab the RSS-feed, index, or go back to my regular NetBSD page

Disclaimer: All opinion expressed here is purely my own. No responsibility is taken for anything.

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Copyright (c) Hubert Feyrer